The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls built between 413 – 422 AD under Theodosius II. The walls protected the city against invasion until 1453 when Istanbul was captured by Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror.
With numerous additions and modifications made over the centuries, these walls are one of the most complex and elaborate systems ever built. The structure consists of a main wall, a front wall and a moat. Stretching from Yedikule to Ayvansaray, the walls are 4.80 meters wide and 11 to 14 meters high. There are monumental gates erected at intervals between these walls. The names of a number of these gates have survived, but there is still a debate between scholars as to their identity and exact location.
The walls were largely maintained during the Ottoman period. Many parts of the walls survive to this day with a major restoration undertaken in the 1990’s.
A number of significant Byzantine and Ottoman era monuments can also be found in this district.