Turkish Language

Turkish (Türkçe) is the most widely-spoken of the Turkic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Turkey. Turkish is an Altaic language and its closest living relatives are other Turkic languages, which are spoken in southwestern, central and northern Asia; and to a lesser degree in southeastern Europe (the Balkans).

Turkish (Türkçe) is the most widely-spoken of the Turkic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Turkey. Turkish is an Altaic language and its closest living relatives are other Turkic languages, which are spoken in southwestern, central and northern Asia; and to a lesser degree in southeastern Europe (the Balkans).

Turkish grammar and sentence structures as well as vocabulary differ completely from Indo-European languages like English and Farsi and Semitic languages like Arabic and Hebrew and indeed from many other languages. There are no articles, genders, or declensions.
There are 29 letters in the alphabet and each of them has only one fixed sound.

Vowels
▪ A – a short sound, as in car
▪ E – a short sound, as in pet
▪ İ – the sound in meet and at the beginning of İstanbul (ees-tan-bul)
▪ I – a “neutral” sound between “a” and “ee”, place your tongue like saying “ee”, but pronounce it “ah”, with the tongue bent slightly backwards. It has no real equivalent in English, and the closest sound is the “uh” which replaces the “e” in the second syllable of open
▪ O – as in order
▪ Ö – pronounced as in German, a blend of “o” and “e”, with lips rounded
▪ U – as in put
▪ Ü – pronounced as in German, make a sound like “ee”, but round your lips like you are going to say “oo”
In lower case, the two letters İ and I look different as well. The lower case form of İ is i, while the lower case form of I is ı.
Consonants
▪ B – as in bed
▪ C – as in jump
▪ Ç – the “ch” sound in chapel
▪ D – as in drum
▪ F – as in far
▪ G – as in girl
▪ Ğ – a silent letter, which serves to lengthen the previous vowel
▪ H – as in hello
▪ J – pronounced as in the French name Jean
▪ K – as in king
▪ L – as in love
▪ M – as in man
▪ N – as in new
▪ P – as in print
▪ R – a tricky consonant in Turkish, most often rolled very lightly
▪ S – as in snake
▪ Ş – the “sh” sound in the English shake
▪ T – as in take
▪ V – roughly the mid-point between the “v” in very and the “w” in was
▪ Y – as in yet
▪ Z – as in zoo


Hello: Merhaba. (mehr hah bah)
Hello:(informal) Selam. (sell um)
How are you? : Nasılsın? (na suhl suhn)
Fine, thank you: İyiyim, teşekkürler. (ee yee yeem teh shek ür lerr)
What is your name? : Adın ne? (ad uhn ne)
My name is ______ . Adım _______ . (Ad uhm _____ .)
Nice to meet you : Memnun oldum. (mem noon oll doom)
Please : Lütfen. (Luet fen)
Thank you.: Teşekkür ederim. (teh shek uer eh der eem)
You’re welcome.: Bir şey değil. (bir shey de yeel)
Yes: Evet. (eh vet)
No: Hayır. (Hah yuhr)
Excuse me? : Bakar mısınız? (bah kar muh suh nuhz)
Excuse me : (begging pardon) Afedersiniz. (af air dair sin niz)
I’m sorry: Özür dilerim. (Ö zuer dil air rim)
Goodbye : Hoşçakalın. (Hosh cha kaluhn)
Goodbye : Güle güle. (guele guele)
Good morning : Günaydın. (Guen eye duhn)
Good afternoon : Tünaydın. (Tuen eye duhn)
Good day: İyi günler. (e yee guen ler)
Good evening : İyi akşamlar. (e yee ak sham lar)
Good night : İyi geceler. (e yee ge jay ler)
Good night (to sleep) : İyi uykular (e yee yoo ku lar)
Welcome : Hoşgeldin. (Hosh gel din)
I don’t understand : Anlamıyorum (An-la-muh-yor-uhm),
Where is the toilet? : Tuvalet nerede? (Too va let ner eh de?)


Numbers
1 bir (beer)
2 iki (icki)
3 üç (uech)
4 dört (dirt)
5 beş (besh)
6 altı (altuh)
7 yedi (yedi)
8 sekiz (sekiz)
9 dokuz (dokuz)
10 on (on)
11 on bir (on bir)
12 on iki (on icki)
13 on üç (on uech)
14 on dört (on doert)
15 on beş (on besh)
16 on altı (on altuh)
17 on yedi (on yedi)
18 on sekiz (on sekiz)
19 on dokuz (on dokuz)
20 yirmi (yir mi)
21 yirmi bir(yir mi bir)
30 otuz (otuz)
40 kırk (kuhrk)
50 elli (elli)
60 altmış (altmuhsh)
70 yetmiş (yet mish)
80 seksen (seksen)
90 doksan (doksan)
100 yüz (yuez)
200 iki yüz (icky yuez)
300 üç yüz (uech yuez)
1000 bin (bin)
2000 iki bin (icky bin)
1,000,000 bir milyon (beer milyon)
1,000,000,000 bir milyar (beer milyar)
Durations
_____ minute(s) ____ dakika (dah kee kah)
_____ hour(s) _____ saat (saht)
_____ day(s) _____ gün (guen)
_____ week(s) _____ hafta (haf ta)
_____ month(s) _____ ay (eye)
_____ year(s) _____ yıl (yuhl)
Numbers
1 bir (beer)
2 iki (icki)
3 üç (uech)
4 dört (dirt)
5 beş (besh)
6 altı (altuh)
7 yedi (yedi)
8 sekiz (sekiz)
9 dokuz (dokuz)
10 on (on)
11 on bir (on bir)
12 on iki (on icki)
13 on üç (on uech)
14 on dört (on doert)
15 on beş (on besh)
16 on altı (on altuh)
17 on yedi (on yedi)
18 on sekiz (on sekiz)
19 on dokuz (on dokuz)
20 yirmi (yir mi)
21 yirmi bir(yir mi bir)
30 otuz (otuz)
40 kırk (kuhrk)
50 elli (elli)
60 altmış (altmuhsh)
70 yetmiş (yet mish)
80 seksen (seksen)
90 doksan (doksan)
100 yüz (yuez)
200 iki yüz (icky yuez)
300 üç yüz (uech yuez)
1000 bin (bin)
2000 iki bin (icky bin)
1,000,000 bir milyon (beer milyon)
1,000,000,000 bir milyar (beer milyar)
Durations
_____ minute(s) ____ dakika (dah kee kah)
_____ hour(s) _____ saat (saht)
_____ day(s) _____ gün (guen)
_____ week(s) _____ hafta (haf ta)
_____ month(s) _____ ay (eye)
_____ year(s) _____ yıl (yuhl)


ATM Bankamatik (bank
bank Banka (bank a)
bill Hesap (hesap)
cash money Nakit (na kit)
cheap Ucuz (ucuz)
cheque Çek (chek)
coins / small money bozuk para (bho zuk pha ra)
credit card kredi kartı (credi cart uh)
deposit Depozito (de po zhi to)
discount İndirim (in di rhim)
expensive Pahalı (pha ha luh)
foreign exchange office döviz bürosu (dhoe viz boe ro soo)
free Bedava (be da vah)
high quality Kaliteli (ka li the li)
invoice Fatura (fha tu rha)
money Para (pah rah)
paper money kağıt para (kia aet pah rah)
price Fiyat (fi yacht)
quality Kalite (ka li teh)
receipt Makbuz (mhak buz)
tax excluded KDV hariç (ka de ve ha rich)
tax included KDV dahil (ka de ve da hill)
to buy satın almak (sat haeen al mak)

afternoon öğleden sonra (oegh le den son ra)
at the moment şu anda (shu an da)
early Erken (er khen)
evening Akşam (ak sham)
last week geçen hafta (gechen haff ta)
late Geç (gech)
later Sonra (son ra)
morning Sabah (sa bach)
next week gelecek hafta (ge le jack haff ta)
night Gece ge jay
now Şimdi (shim di)
soon Yakında (yha khın da)
this evening bu akşam (bu ak sham)
this morning bu sabah (bu sa bach)
today Bugün (bu guen)
tomorrow Yarın (ya raeen)
yesterday Dün (deeon)

Days (Günler)
Sunday Pazar (paz ar)
Monday Pazartesi (paz ar tesee)
Tuesday Salı (saluh)
Wednesday Çarşamba (char sham ba)
Thursday Perşembe (per shem beh)
Friday Cuma (jooma)
Saturday Cumartesi (joo mar tesi)

Months (Aylar)
January Ocak (o jak)
February Şubat (shoo bat)
March Mart (mart)
April Nisan (nee sahn)
May Mayıs (ma yuhs)
June Haziran (ha zee ran)
July Temmuz (taem mooz)
August Ağustos (aa hoos toss)
September Eylül (aey luehl)
October Ekim (eh keem)
November Kasım (kah suhm)
December Aralık (a ra luhk)


Black Siyah (see yah)
White Beyaz (be yaz)
Yellow Sarı (sa ruh)
Blue Mavi (mah vee)
Navy Lacivert (la jee vehrt)
Green Yeşil (ye sheel)
Red Kırmızı (kuhr muh zuh)
Pink Pembe (pem beh)
Orange Turuncu (toor oon joo)
Purple Mor (mohr)
Brown Kahverengi (kahh veh reng gee)


accident Kaza (ka zaa)
Call an ambulance! Ambulans çağrın!
Call the police! Polis çağrın! (poh lees cha hu rhun)
dentist diş hekimi (dish he khim i)
diarrhea İshal (is hael)
doctor Doktor ( dhok tor)
fever Ateş (a tesh)
Fire! Yangın! (yhan ghun)
headache baş ağrısı (bash aghrue sue)
Help! İmdat! (Im Daht !)
hospital Hastane (has tha neh)
medication İlaç (i lach)
pain Ağrı (agh rhui)
pharmacy Eczane (ej zha neh)
police Polis (poh lees)
sick / ill Hasta (has tha)
Stop! Dur! (dur)
Where is the nearest hospital? En yakın hastane nerede? (en yha khuin has tha ne ne re deh?)

beer Bira (beer a)
black pepper Karabiber (ka ra bee ber)
bottle Şişe (shi shee)
bread Ekmek (ehk mehk)
breakfast Kahvaltı (kah val thui)
butter Tereyağı (teh reh yaa uh)
dessert Tatlı (tat lui)
dinner akşam yemeği (ak sham ye meghi)
enjoy your meal afiyet olsun (a fi yet ol soon)
fillet steak Bonfile (bon fee le)
fish Balık (bah luhk)
food Yemek (ye mekh)
fork Çatal (cha thal)
glass Bardak (bhar duck)
ice cream Dondurma (dhon dur ma)
ice Buz (buz)
knife Bıçak (bui chak)
lamb grilled on a spit and served in thin slices döner kebap (doe ner ke bap)
layered pastry with cheese/meat/spinach filling börek (boe rek)
lemon Limon (lee mon)
lunch öğle yemeği (oegh leh ye me ghee)
main course ana yemek (a na ye mek)
meat Et (et)
menu Menü (me nooe)
peppers Biber (bee ber)
plate Tabak (ta buck)
rare (cooked) az pişmiş (az pish mish)
salad Salata (sa la tah)
salt Tuz (tuz)
serviette Peçete (pe che te)
soup Çorba (chor ba)
spoon Kaşık (kash eeak)
starter Meze (me ze)
steak Biftek (bif tek)
sugar Şeker (she ker)
table Masa (ma sa)
tea Çay (chaay)
tip Bahşiş (bach shish)
toast Tost (tohst)
waiter / waitress Garson (gar son)
walnuts Ceviz (ce veez)
water Su (su)
well done iyi pişmiş (i yee pish mish)
white cheese beyaz peynir (be yaz phey neer)
white wine beyaz şarap (be yaz sha raph)
wine list şarap listesi (sha raph lees te si)
with meat Etli (et lee)
yoghurt drink Ayran (ay run)

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